Category Archives: Air-Water

Items related to the impacts on water resources of materials originating in air emissions, such as acid precipitation, mercury, etc.

Detailed Investigative Report on Munitions Disposal at Radford Army Ammunition Plant on New River in Montgomery County, Va., Published by ProPublica in July 2017

“Open burns, ill winds,” published by ProPublica on July 20, 2017, is a long, detailed, investigative article examines the U.S. military’s practices for disposing of munitions waste.  It focuses specifically on the use of open-air burning at the Radford Army Ammunition Plant (RAAP) along the New River in Montgomery County, Virginia, and concerns over potential health impacts of air emissions from that kind of disposal.  It examines permitting and permit monitoring issues for federal and state regulators regarding potential water, air, and health contaminants; the history of disposal practices at other various locations in the United States and in other countries; and concerns and questions raised by local residents.  The article is available online at https://www.propublica.org/article/military-pollution-open-burns-radford-virginia.

On its Web site, https://www.propublica.org, ProPublica states that it is “an independent, non-profit newsroom that produces investigative journalism in the public interest.”

For more on developments at the RAAP since 2015, please see this Water Central News Grouper post: Hazardous Waste Open-air Incineration at Radford Army Ammunition Plant (RAAP).

Va. Governor Executive Directive on Reducing Carbon Emissions from Power Plants; Issued May 16, 2017; Regulatory Process Started in June 2017

On May 16, 2017, Va. Gov. Terry McAuliffe signed and announced Executive Directive 11, which instructs the Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) to begin a process of developing regulations to reduce carbon emissions from electric power plants.  The directive is available online (as a PDF) at http://governor.virginia.gov/media/9155/ed-11-reducing-carbon-dioxide-emissions-from-electric-power-facilities-and-growing-virginias-clean-energy-economy.pdf.

Following is an excerpt from the directive: “I hereby direct the Director of the Department of Environmental Quality, in coordination with the Secretary of Natural Resources, to take the following actions…
1. Develop a proposed regulation for the State Air Pollution Control Board’s consideration to abate, control, or limit carbon dioxide emissions from electric power facilities that: a. Includes provisions to ensure that Virginia’s regulation is “trading-ready” to allow for the use of market-based mechanisms and the trading of carbon dioxide allowances through a multi-state trading program; and b. Establishes abatement mechanisms providing for a corresponding level of stringency to limits on carbon dioxide emissions imposed in other states with such limits.
2. By no later than December 31, 2017, present the proposed regulation to the State Air Pollution Control Board for consideration for approval for public comment….”

A Notice of Intended Regulatory Action was published in the Virginia Register of Regulations on June 26, 2017.  The pertinent section of the Virginia Administrative Code is 9 VAC 5-140.   More information on this regulatory action is available online at http://townhall.virginia.gov/L/viewaction.cfm?actionid=4818.  According to the “Action Summary” at that Web site, “[t]he purpose of the proposed action is to develop a regulation, in accordance with Executive Directive 11 (2017), ‘Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Electric Power Facilities and Growing Virginia’s Clean Energy Economy,’ that (i) ensures that Virginia is trading-ready to allow for the use of market-based mechanisms and the trading of carbon dioxide (CO2) allowances through a multi-state trading program, and (ii) establishes abatement mechanisms that provide for a corresponding level of stringency to CO2 limits imposed in other states with such limits.”

A Regulatory Advisory Committee was formed to provide advice to the DEQ on development of the CO2 regulations.  The committee was scheduled to hold its first meeting on August 3, 2017; information on that meeting is available online at http://townhall.virginia.gov/L/ViewMeeting.cfm?MeetingID=26367.

The new directive follows the report on May 12 of the Executive Order 57 Work Group, which the governor established in June 2016 to study and make recommendations about reducing carbon emissions from the Commonwealth’s power plants.  The group’s final report, along with more information about Executive Order 57, is available online at https://naturalresources.virginia.gov/initiatives/eo-57/.

Source: Governor McAuliffe Takes Executive Action to Reduce Carbon Emissions Across Virginia; “Clean Energy Virginia” initiative will cap greenhouse gases and grow Virginia’s clean energy economy, Virginia Governor’s Office News Release, 5/16/17.

Following are some news media accounts on Executive Directive 11, listed from newest to oldest.
Virginia Begins Development of Cap-and-Trade Program for Electric Power Sector, National Law Review, 5/19/17.
Wagner takes aim at McAuliffe carbon order; critics say he’s seeking attention, Daily Press, 5/19/17.
Amid longshot run for governor, Wagner says he’ll call emergency hearing to fight McAuliffe’s climate change plan, Richmond Times-Dispatch, 5/19/17.
Virginia Governor Orders Power Plant Carbon Regulations, POWER Magazine, 5/18/17.
Bucking D.C. and Republican legislature, Virginia governor moves to limit carbon emissions, ThinkProgress (Center for American Progress Action Fund), 5/17/17.
McAuliffe Moves to Cap Utility Carbon Emissions, Bacon’s Rebellion, 5/17/17.
McAuliffe moves to curb carbon emissions blamed for sea level rise, [Newport News] Daily Press, 5/16/17.
McAuliffe: Virginia will regulate carbon emissions; ‘the threat of climate change is real’, Richmond Times-Dispatch, 5/16/17.
McAuliffe proposes statewide carbon cap, Washington Post, 5/16/17.
Virginia AG: State board can regulate carbon pollution, Richmond Times-Dispatch, 5/12/17.
Will Virginia forge its own path on carbon regulation?, Richmond Times-Dispatch, 5/3/17.

Va. Governor’s June 28, 2016, Executive Order 57 on Reducing Carbon Emissions from Power Plants; Work Group Report of Recommendations on May 12, 2017

On June 28, 2016, Va. Gov. Terry McAuliffe signed an Executive Order 57, creating a work group to recommend actions available under existing state authority to reduce carbon emissions from power plants.  The work group was under Secretary of Natural Resources Molly Ward.  The work group’s first meeting was August 31, 2016; more information on that meeting is available from the Virginia Commonwealth Calendar, online at https://commonwealthcalendar.virginia.gov/Event/Details/4400.  The group submitted its report to the governor on May 12, 2017; the report, along with more information about Executive Order 57, is available online at https://naturalresources.virginia.gov/initiatives/eo-57/.

The full text of Gov. McAuliffe’s order, Executive Order 57, is available in the following source: Governor McAuliffe Signs Executive Order to Reduce Carbon Emissions in Virginia; Order creates workgroup to recommend executive actions to reduce carbon emissions from the electric sector, Virginia Governor’s Office News Release, 6/28/16.

Following are some news accounts on the executive order and the work group:
Will Virginia forge its own path on carbon regulation?, Richmond Times-Dispatch, 5/3/17.
Virginia Gov. McAuliffe issues executive order to cut GHG emissions, UtilityDive, 6/30/16.
McAuliffe promises action on carbon, climate change, sets task force in motion, Daily Press, 6/28/16.
McAuliffe plans to sidestep legislature on climate change, Richmond Times-Dispatch, 6/28/16 [full text of executive order also available in this article].
McAuliffe pushes for action on decreasing carbon emissions, Virginian-Pilot, 6/28/16.

Virginia Toxics Release Inventory Report for 2014 Data Released March 29, 2016, by Va. DEQ

On March 29, 2016, the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) announced publication of the latest annual Toxics Release Inventory (TRI), covering data reported for 2014.

According to the report’s Executive Summary, this year’s report lists types and amounts of chemicals released and reported by 436 industrial operations in the Commonwealth having 10 or more employees and reaching specific minimum amounts of toxic chemicals used.  (See p. 2 in the report Introduction to this year’s report for the list of criteria determining which operations must report.)   Virginia industries reported on 153 chemical and chemical categories, out of over 650 chemicals can chemical categories subject to TRI report.

Virginia industries reported 916.6 million pounds of chemicals managed released to the environment, transferred off-site, or managed on-site in 2014, a 5.6-percent increase from the previous year.  This included 35.2 million pounds of chemicals released on-site to the air, water and land (2.4-percent decrease from 2013 data); 66.9 million pounds transferred off-site for treatment, recycling, energy recovery or disposal (1.0-percent decrease from 2013); and 814.4 million pounds managed on-site by treatment, recycling, or energy recovery (6.6-percent increase from 2013).

Released amounts of persistent bioaccumulative toxics (chemicals that remain in the environment for a long time, are not easily destroyed, and can build up in body tissue)—were 640,801 pounds released on-site; 819,099 pounds transferred off-site from reporting Virginia facilities for treatment, recycling, energy recovery, or disposal; and 200,232 pounds managed on-site by treatment, recycling, or energy recovery.

The report’s Executive Summary states the following about how to interpret the release information: “The Virginia TRI Report provides the public with information concerning specified toxic chemicals and chemical compounds which are manufactured, processed, or otherwise used at Virginia facilities.  Responsible use of the information can help the public and industry identify potential concerns and develop effective strategies for reducing toxic chemical usage and release.  The TRI data do not, however, represent a measure of the public’s exposure to chemicals, nor do they assess risk.  Most of the releases are regulated and permitted under other state and federal programs that are designed to protect human health and the environment.  Because of differences in report-generation schedules and receipt of reports, the information in the Virginia TRI Report will not precisely match the information in the national Toxics Release Inventory—Public Data Release, located at http://www2.epa.gov/toxics-release-inventory-tri-program/tri-data-and-tools, as published by [the U.S.] EPA.”

The 2014 Virginia TRI report is available online at http://www.deq.virginia.gov/Programs/Air/AirQualityPlanningEmissions/SARATitleIII/SARA313ToxicsReleaseInventory/VA2014ToxicsReleaseInventoryReport.aspx.  Reports from previous years are located online at http://www.deq.virginia.gov/Programs/Air/AirQualityPlanningEmissions/SARATitleIII/SARA313ToxicsReleaseInventory.aspx.

Additional source: Virginia issues report on chemical releases for 2014, Virginia Department of Environmental Quality News Release, 3/29/16.

Mercury Emissions from Human Sources Declined 30 Percent from 1990-2010, according to Research Released in January 2016

Worldwide human-caused mercury emissions decreased 30 percent from 1990 to 2010, according to research published in January 2016 by Harvard University, Peking University (Beijing, China), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry (Mainz, Germany), and the University of Alberta (Edmonton, Canada).

Mercury is transported globally when released into the atmosphere through coal combustion, mining, manufacturing, commercial products, and volcanic activity. Once deposited into ecosystems, including aquatic systems, it can be converted to methylmercury and pose health risks to wildlife and humans.

According to the a January 13, 2016, USGS news release on the research, the large decreasing trends in human-generated mercury observed in North America and Europe reflect the phase-out of mercury from commercial products, sulfur dioxide and nitrous oxide emission controls on coal-fired utilities, and the increasing transition to natural gas in power plants. The study’s authors noted that the observed decreases offset increasing emission trends in Asia. “This is important for policy and decision-makers, as well as natural resource managers, because, as our results show, their actions can have tangible effects on mercury emissions, even at the local level,” said study co-author Vincent St. Louis of the University of Alberta in the USGS news release.

The study is entitled “Observed decrease in atmospheric mercury explained by global decline in anthropogenic emissions,” published in January 2016 in the online Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. For more information about the study, follow the link below.

Source: U.S. Geological Survey, “Science Feature: North American and European Atmospheric Mercury Declines Explained by Local and Regional Emission Reductions,” online at http://toxics.usgs.gov/highlights/2016-01-13-global_mercury_decline.html, accessed 1/25/16.

For more information on mercury in the environment:

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Mercury in Your Environment, online at http://www.epa.gov/mercury.

U.S. Geological Survey, “Mercury in Aquatic Ecosystems,” online at http://toxics.usgs.gov/investigations/mercury.html.

This post was written by Taylor Richmond, a Virginia Tech student doing an internship in Spring 2016 with the Virginia Water Resources Research Center.

Informal Comment Period on Clean Power Plan Held by Va. DEQ Aug. 13–Oct. 13, 2015; Six Listening Sessions held Sep. 16 to Oct. 6; Stakeholder Group Established and Began Meeting in November 2015

On August 13, 2015, the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) announced an informal comment period on how the Commonwealth should respond to the final version of the Clean Power Plan, announced by the U.S. EPA on August 3, 2015.  The comment period ran from August 13 through October 13, 2015.  DEQ notes that because there was no formal DEQ proposal available for comment at this time, and the agency will not provide a response to comments received during this period.

In September and October 2015, the DEQ held six informal listening sessions on the Clean Power Plan.  The dates and locations were as follows:

9/16/15,DEQ Valley Regional Office, 4411 Early Road in Harrisonburg.

9/22/15, DEQ Blue Ridge Regional Office, 3019 Peters Creek Road in Roanoke.

9/28/15, Fairfax County South County High School, 8501 Silverbrook Road in Lorton.

9/30/15: Board of Supervisors Board Room, Henrico County Government Center, 4301 East Parham Road in Henrico.

10/1/15: Mountain Empire Community College, Phillips-Taylor Hall, 3441 Mountain Empire Road in Big Stone Gap.

10/6/15, Tidewater Community College, Building A (Room A101), 120 Campus Drive in Portsmouth.

According to the DEQ’s 8/13/15 news release on the comment period (available online at http://www.deq.virginia.gov/ConnectWithDEQ/NewsReleases.aspx),  the “new EPA rules may have a significant impact on the Commonwealth.  Therefore, prior to taking any formal action, DEQ is gathering general input from the public to help inform the Commonwealth’s review and implementation of EPA’s final rules for existing power plants…. In addition to receiving general input from the public, the Commonwealth is also interested in identifying and collecting input from vulnerable and overburdened communities. These communities include low-income communities, communities of color, areas where people are most vulnerable to climate change, and communities where economies may be affected by changes in the utility power and related sectors.”

In November 2015, the DEQ convened a stakeholders group to advise on elements that could be included in Virginia’s compliance plan under the Clean  Power Plan.  Click on this link for information from the Virginia Regulatory Town Hall on the November 12, 2015, meeting of that stakeholder group.

For more on the Clean Power Plan, please see the August 3, 2015, News Grouper post.

Final Version of “Clean Power Plan” Announced by President Obama and the U.S. EPA on August 3, 2015; Carbon Emissions from Existing Power Plants to be Reduced by 32% Nationwide; States Have Individually Set Reduction Targets

On August 3, 2015, President Obama announced the final version of U.S. EPA’s Clean Power plan, the agency’s regulation to require existing power plants to reduce their emission of carbon dioxide and other carbon compounds (often referred to as “greenhouse gases”) that contribute to global warming and climate change.

The regulation was first announced by the EPA on June 2, 2014, and was published in the June 18, 2014, Federal Register, starting  on page 34829; the Web site for searching the Federal Register is https://www.federalregister.gov/articles/search.  From that publication date, the proposed regulation had an initial 120-day public-comment period, until October 16, 2014, but the agency extended the public-comment deadline until December 1, 2014.

The final version differs from the proposed rule in several ways, including setting an overall nationwide carbon-emissions reduction target (compared to 2005 levels) of 32 percent by 2030, compared to the proposed rule’s 30 percent; changing some individual state emissions-reduction percentages that were in the 2014 proposal (Virginia’s reduction target was lower in the final version than it had been in the proposed version); allowing two additional years for states to submit implementation plans (2018 instead of 2016) and for the compliance period to start (2022 instead of 2020); increasing the 2030 target for electricity generated nationwide by renewable sources from 22 percent to 28 percent; and offering incentives to states that achieve accomplish renewable-energy or low-income energy-efficiency actions before the deadline.  States will be allowed to choose from a mix of emissions-reductions options, including using different fuels, energy efficiency, reducing demand, and trading carbon-reduction credits with other states.  EPA asserts that practices to reduce carbon emissions will have “co-benefit” of reducing missions of particles, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur dioxide, substances that have impacts on human health (such as asthma) and on water resources when they are deposited into water bodies.

The regulation on existing power plants follows EPA’s release in September 2013 (January 2014 publication in the Federal Register) of a proposed rule on carbon emissions from new power-generating sources; the public-comment period for that proposal ended May 9, 2014 (extended from the original deadline of January 8, 2014).  According to the EPA’s Web site, “2013 Proposed Carbon Pollution Standard for New Power Plants” (online at http://www2.epa.gov/cleanpowerplan/2013-proposed-carbon-pollution-standard-new-power-plants), the agency also expects to issue the final version of the new-source rule in summer 2015.

The regulatory actions on new and existing plants both come under Section 111 of the federal Clean Air Act.  Information from the EPA on the agency’s overall program on carbon emissions is available online at http://www2.epa.gov/carbon-pollution-standards/what-epa-doing#overview.  The EPA actions are part of the federal government’s response to President Obama’s Climate Action Plan, announced on June 25, 2013.  White House information on that plan is available online at http://www.whitehouse.gov/share/climate-action-plan.

On August 13, 2015, the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) announced an informal comment period on how the Commonwealth should respond to the Clean Power Plan, to run from August 13 through October 13, 2015.   According to the DEQ’s 8/13/15 news release on the comment period (available online at http://www.deq.virginia.gov/ConnectWithDEQ/NewsReleases.aspx), the “new EPA rules may have a significant impact on the Commonwealth.  Therefore, prior to taking any formal action, DEQ is gathering general input from the public to help inform the Commonwealth’s review and implementation of EPA’s final rules for existing power plants…. In addition to receiving general input from the public, the Commonwealth is also interested in identifying and collecting input from vulnerable and overburdened communities. These communities include low-income communities, communities of color, areas where people are most vulnerable to climate change, and communities where economies may be affected by changes in the utility power and related sectors.”  Comments may be emailed to ghg@deq.virginia.gov, faxed to (804) 698-4510, or mailed DEQ Air Division, P.O. Box 1105, Richmond, VA  23218.  DEQ notes that because there is no formal DEQ proposal available for comment at this time, and the agency will not provide a response to comments.

On February 9, 2016, the U.S. Supreme Court granted a stay of EPA’s implementation of the regulation until the lawsuit has run its course. The stay will remain is effect while the case returns to the D.C. Appeals Court to hear the merits of the lawsuit and for any appeals of that court’s eventual ruling.  That court is scheduled to hear oral arguments in June 2016.  Responding to the stay, Va. Gov. Terry McAuliffe said in a February 10 news release that “we will stay on course and continue to develop the elements for a Virginia plan to reduce carbon emissions and stimulate our clean energy economy.”  For more on the lawsuit against the Clean Power Plan, please see the Water Central News Grouper post, please see this News Grouper post.

On April 18, 2016, the Virginia DEQ released a report on the activities and findings so far of Virginia’s Clean Power Plan stakeholders group, which met five times from November 2015 to March 2016.  According to that report,  “[N]o further meetings [of the stakeholders group] are planned at this time, [but] DEQ will evaluate whether additional meetings are needed after several utility integrated resource plans (IRPs) and other studies become available in May 2016.”  Access to the stakeholder group’s report in available at the DEQ’s “Greenhouse Gases” Web site, online at http://deq.virginia.gov/Programs/Air/GreenhouseGasPlan.aspx, as of 5/10/16).

SOURCES FOR MORE INFORMATION 

A 37-minute video of the 8/3/15 announcement is available online at https://youtu.be/RQ6N8zN3RCA; skip to about 3 min/42 seconds to see EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy; the president’s remarks start at about 7 min/45 seconds.

U.S. EPA’s 8/3/15 news release on the final rule: Fact Sheet: President Obama to Announce Historic Carbon Pollution Standards for Power Plants.

U.S. EPA’s 6/2/14 news release on proposed  Clean Power Plan rule: EPA Proposes First Guidelines to Cut Carbon Pollution from Existing Power Plants.

U.S. EPA’s Web site on the Clean Power  Plan: http://www2.epa.gov/cleanpowerplan.

U.S. EPA state-by-state information for the final version, as of 8/3/15: http://www2.epa.gov/cleanpowerplantoolbox/clean-power-plan-state-specific-fact-sheets.

E&E Publishing’s “Clean Power Plan Hub,” available online at http://www.eenews.net/interactive/clean_power_plan.  At that site, users can click on any U.S. state to access information about that state’s requirements.

An interactive map of power-generating plants in the mid-Atlantic region (including Virginia)—allowing users to click on a location to see emissions of carbon dioxide and gases—available from the EPA at http://www.epa.gov/reg3artd/globclimate/r3pplants.html.

A July 2014 report assessing what large electric-utility companies were already doing (at that time) in the areas of energy efficiency and use of renewable energy sources is available online at http://www.ceres.org/resources/reports/benchmarking-utility-clean-energy-deployment-2014.

Commonwealth of Virginia comments submitted 11/14/14 to EPA on the draft regulation: http://www.deq.virginia.gov/Portals/0/DEQ/Air/Planning/vacommentstoepa.pdf (16 pages).

RELATED MEDIA ARTICLES
(Items are listed from most recent to oldest; hyperlinks were functional when they were added to this post, but they may not necessarily always be.)

Since 8/3/15 final rule:

Virginia Committee Passes Bill Setting Foundation to Reject EPA Clean Power Plan, Tenth Amendment Center, 1/25/17 [regarding HB 1974 in the 2017 Virginia General Assembly, which would requires the Department of Environmental Quality to receive approval from the General Assembly for a state implementation plan of the Clean Power Plan].

Business owners, environmentalists press governor on clean energy plan for Virginia, Richmond Times-Dispatch, 8/22/16.  [“A pair of environmental groups will deliver letters to Gov. Terry McAuliffe today signed by more than 100 Virginia businesses, health professionals and civic leaders urging the governor to implement ‘a strong Clean Power Plan.’”]

Clean Power Plan: Meet Va.’s man in the climate rule trenches, E&E ClimateWire, 5/6/16.  [This article profiles Michael Dowd, the director of the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality’s Air Division, and describes his role in Virginia’s response to the U.S. EPA’s Clean Power Plan.]

No Consensus on Clean Power Plan, but McAuliffe Cutting CO2 Emissions by Other Means, Bacon’s Rebellion, 4/8/16 [an assessment following the first five meetings of Virginia’s Clean Power Plan stakeholders group; more information about that group, including meeting minutes, is available online at http://www.deq.virginia.gov/Programs/Air/GreenhouseGasPlan.aspx.]

To Comply or Not? Obama’s Climate Plan in Limbo at State Level, Climate Wire, as published by Scientific American, 2/16/16.

Navigating the Clean Power Plan Maze, Bacon’s Rebellion, 2/16/16 [a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of the “rate-based” vs. “mass-based” alternatives for complying with carbon-emission reductions under the Clean Power Plan].

General Assembly Moving Forward with Oversight of Clean Power Plan
, WVIR TV-Charlottesville, 2/16/16.

Carbon Trading Program Could Yield Significant Rewards for Virginia, Union of Concerned Scientists, 1/14/16 [regarding Union of Concerned Scientists’ report released on 1/14/16; report available online at http://www.ucsusa.org/clean-energy/increase-renewable-energy/meeting-and-exceeding-clean-power-plan-virginia#.Vqd78lIXf6U]. 

Virginia Joins Multi-State Coalition Supporting Economic, Environmental, and Health Benefits of Clean Air, Virginia Attorney General’s Office News Release, 11/4/15.

Activists urge DEQ to turn to renewable energy; Solar power was the most-suggested alternative to using more natural gas and building pipelines, Roanoke Times, 9/22/15 [account of 9/22/15 listening session by Va. DEQ, one of six sessions held around the state in Sept.-Oct. 2015 to gather citizen comments on how Virginia should respond to the Clean Power Plan].

DEQ to hear comments on new EPA rules, Lynchburg News & Advance, 9/21/15.

[Virginia General Assembly] House Republicans push legislation to challenge EPA’s Clean Power rules, Richmond Times-Dispatch, 8/10/15.

Virginia voices react to final Clean Power Plan rules, Associated Press, as published by Loudoun Times-Mirror, 8/4/15.

Governor McAuliffe Statement on Environmental Protection Agency’s Final Clean Power Plan Rule, Virginia Governor’s Office News Release, 8/3/15.

Virginia reacts to EPA’s Clean Power Plan, Daily Press, 8/3/15.

U.S. plan to reduce carbon dioxide emissions eases the requirement for Virginia, Richmond Times-Dispatch, 8/3/15.

Climate change: Obama unveils Clean Power Plan, BBC News, 8/3/15.

U.S. Unveils Strengthened Clean Power Plan to Combat Climate Change, Climate Wire, as published by Scientific American, 8/3/15.

Obama unveils major climate change proposal, CNN, 8/3/15.

Virginia reacts to EPA’s Clean Power Plan, [Newport News] Daily Press, 8/3/15.

U.S. plan to reduce carbon dioxide emissions eases the requirement for Virginia, Richmond Times-Dispatch, 8/3/15.

Obama Announces Rule to Cut Carbon Emissions From Power Plants; Final regulation calls for 32% cut in emissions by 2030 from 2005 levels, Wall Street Journal, 8/3/15.

Will new clean power regulations stand up to challenges?, (15 min./44 sec. video, with online transcript), PBS NewsHour, 8/3/15.

Prior to 8/3/15 final rule:

Energy rules have Virginia weighing new nuclear reactor at North Anna, Richmond Times-Dispatch, 7/5/15.

Virginia, Coal Country for Centuries, Now Embraces Carbon Regulations, Inside Climate News, 6/16/15.

Virginia weighs joining [regional] carbon market under EPA rules, Washington Examiner, 5/12/15.