Category Archives: Coal and Water

Items on the various connections between water resources and the mining and use of coal.

Coal Ash Storage Regulation Published by U.S. EPA in Federal Register on Apr. 17, 2015; Dominion to Close Ash Ponds at Four Virginia Power Stations Within Three Years

On April 17, 2015, the U.S. EPA published in the Federal Register the final version of its regulation (“final rule”) on disposal of coal combustion residuals (also called “coal ash”) from electric utilities, under the federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).  The U.S. EPA administrator had signed the final rule on December 19, 2014.  According to the EPA’s Web site on the rule, the rule aims to address three areas of risk from coal ash disposal: leaking of contaminants into groundwater, blowing of contaminants into the air as dust, and the catastrophic failure of coal ash surface ponds.

Also on April 17, Dominion Virginia Power announced that it will comply with the new regulation by closing—within three years—coal-ash ponds at four Virginia electric-power stations: Bremo Power Station in Fluvanna County, Chesapeake Energy Center in the City of Chesapeake, Chesterfield Power Station in Chesterfield County, and Possum Point Power Station in Prince William County. The process Dominion will follow includes—at minimum—draining the ponds, covering them with an impermeable liner, then covering the liner with 24 inches of soil planted with grass seed or sod. Final details of the closure process—including whether or not any of the ash will be removed—are to be determined by the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality.

Sources:
“Final Rule: Disposal of Coal Combustion Residuals from Electric Utilities,” U.S. EPA, online at http://www2.epa.gov/coalash/coal-ash-rule, accessed 4/22/15.

Dominion Virginia Power to close coal ash ponds in state, Richmond Times-Dispatch, 4/17/15.

USED Sep07 Dominion Chesterfield Power Station near plant Dutch Gap Conservation Area Jun22 2007

Dominion Virginia Power’s Chesterfield Power Station on the James River in Chesterfield County, Va., shown here in June 2007.

Consent Order for Duke Energy’s Feb. 2014 Coal Ash Spill into Dan River Announced Apr. 3, 2015, by Va. DEQ

On April 3, 2015, the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) announced a proposed $2.5 million consent order for Duke Energy Carolinas as a result of the February 2, 2014, coal ash spill into the Dan River. The order is available on the DEQ website at www.deq.virginia.gov. For more information, contact Bill Hayden at (804) 698-4447 or william.hayden@deq.virginia.gov.

Following is an excerpt from the DEQ’s April 3 news release on the proposed consent order, “Proposed consent order imposes $2.5 million settlement on Duke Energy Carolinas for Dan River coal ash spill,” available online at http://www.deq.virginia.gov/info/newsreleases.php?show=2495.

“The settlement, part of a consent order to which Duke has agreed, is one of the largest ever proposed by DEQ. It includes $2.25 million in environmental projects that Duke must perform to benefit Virginia localities affected by the spill. The remaining $250,000 will be placed in the fund DEQ uses to respond to environmental emergencies. … “A public comment period on the proposed order will be open through May 20, 2015. Afterward, the State Water Control Board must give final approval for the order to take effect.

“The spill occurred February 2, 2014, when a stormwater pipe beneath a coal ash storage pond collapsed at a Duke facility in Eden, N.C., sending up to 39,000 tons of coal ash and about 25 million gallons of ash impoundment water into the Dan River. The material moved downriver and settled out in varying amounts for about 80 miles, reaching the Kerr Reservoir in Virginia.

“DEQ and several state and federal agencies have been monitoring the Dan River since the spill. Though no immediate environmental concerns have been identified, analysis of data collected during the past year is ongoing and will form a “baseline” for detailing potential problems in the future. DEQ will continue long-term evaluation of the river, including monitoring and assessment of water quality, sediments and fish populations for at least the next two to four years.

“In addition to proposing the consent order, DEQ is participating in a multi-part enforcement strategy involving Duke. These actions include [the following]:

• Cost reimbursement – DEQ negotiated terms with Duke immediately after the spill for full reimbursement of all costs associated with spill response on behalf of Halifax County, the Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, the Virginia Department of Health, and DEQ. Cost recovery to date totals $237,000 and will continue until work on the Dan River is complete.

• Order for coal ash removal – DEQ coordinated with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and other state and federal agencies in the development of EPA’s consent order requiring Duke to conduct ash removal from the Dan River. This included dredging at Abreu-Grogan Park in Danville, where crews removed more than 2,000 tons of coal ash and river sediment. Duke also removed contaminated solids from settling basins at the Danville and South Boston water treatment plants.

• Natural Resource Damage Trustee Council – DEQ is representing the Commonwealth and local communities on the Dan River Natural Resource Damage Trustee Council. Along with the North Carolina DENR and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, DEQ is working with Duke on the assessment and compensation for harm to Virginia’s natural resources. Identification of opportunities for “early restoration” projects is under way with the trustee council’s review of proposals solicited from the localities and general public in late 2014.

• Department of Justice criminal action – DEQ has assisted the U.S. Department of Justice in the development of its criminal case against Duke in North Carolina. DEQ will continue to coordinate with DOJ to advocate for Virginia’s interests in any plea agreement between the United States and Duke, including the requirement of community service projects benefiting affected local communities and the Dan River watershed.”

Following are hyperlinked headlines of three media accounts about the proposed consent order:
Duke Energy, Virginia agree to $2.5 million coal ash settlement, Richmond Times-Dispatch, 4/3/15.
Duke, Virginia agree to $2.5 million coal ash settlement, Associated Press, as published by Roanoke Times, 4/3/15.
Duke Energy to pay Virginia $2.5 million for Dan River spill, Charlotte (N.C.) Observer, 4/3/15.

Lawsuit Filed by Sierra Club in March 2015 Against Dominion Virginia Power Over Coal Ash at Chesapeake Energy Center in Chesapeake, Va.

On March 19, 2015, the Sierra Club, represented by the Southern Environmental Law Center, filed a federal lawsuit alleging “ongoing contamination of groundwater and surrounding surface waters” from Dominion Virginia Power’s coal-fired Chesapeake Energy Center power plant in Chesapeake, Va.

Filed in the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia, located in Norfolk, the suit alleges that the plant’s disposal of coal ash (the solid material remaining after combustion of coal to generate electric power) in storage ponds between the Southern Branch of the Elizabeth River and Deep Creek (Dominion’s practice since 1953, according to the suit), have “for at least two decades” resulted in discharges to groundwater of arsenic and other heavy metals and pollutants at levels above Virginia standards, that the groundwater contaminants also reach surface waters, and that the plant’s Virginia Pollutant Elimination Discharge System (VPDES) permit does not permit such levels of discharge.

According to the WAVY-TV/Norfolk report of the lawsuit filing, Dominion stated that it stopped operation of the plant in December 2014 and is decommissioning the plant in compliance with federal and state regulations.

The plant is under a Virginia Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) groundwater corrective action plan that aims to diminish the level of groundwater contaminants over time. Information on DEQ’s groundwater-monitoring program for solid-waste facilities (including coal-ash storage) is available online at http://www.deq.virginia.gov/Programs/LandProtectionRevitalization/SolidHazardousWasteRegulatoryPrograms/SolidWaste/GroundwaterMonitoring.aspx.

Sources: Dominion sued over Chesapeake power plant, WAVY-TV Norfolk, 3/19/15 (a PDF link to the lawsuit document filed by the SELC on March 19 was available at this site, as of 3/20/15); and Group sues Dominion over Chesapeake coal ash, Virginian-Pilot, 3/20/15.

Dan River Coal Ash Spill of February 2, 2014, One Year Later

February 2, 2015, marked the one-year anniversary of the Dan River coal-ash spill that resulted from the collapse of a stormwater pipe under a coal-ash storage basin at the Duke Energy’s Dan River Station in Eden, North Carolina.  The break spilled an estimated 39,000 tons of coal ash from the ash-storage basin into the Dan River.

After the initial emergency phase, the impacts of the spill continued to be closely watched and reported, particularly in Danville, Va., and Greensboro, N.C.  A year later, the environmental impacts seemed to have been limited to certain areas, and signs of recovery had been observed by scientists, but longer-term impacts were still possible and continued to be monitored.  The spill also had financial, political, legal/regulatory consequences, particularly in North Carolina, and as of February 2015, a grand jury was still investigating possible civil or criminal charges.

A comprehensive account of the incident, its background, and its consequences over the past year is available in The Day the River Turned Gray—The Dan River Coal Ash Disaster, Greensboro News-Record, 2/1/15.

An  extensive Water Central News Grouper post on the incident, including a compilation of news articles between February 2014 and February 2015, is available at this link.

Water-and-Energy Items in Virginia-area Water News Headlines Sampler for June 3—June 21, 2014

Following are headlines and notes for a selection of news items published between June 3 and June 21, 2014, on water-and-energy developments that took place in Virginia or that are otherwise relevant to Virginia.  The headlines are grouped from newest to oldest.  As of 6/27/14, all headlines listed below had working hyperlinks to take you to the full article, but those links may or may not be working at later dates.

Power Company Clashes With US History in Virginia, Associated Press, as published by ABC News, 6/21/14.  As of mid-June 2014, Dominion Virginia Power was in the process of seeking U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ permits for an eight-mile, 500-kilovolt transmission line from its power station in Surry County across the James River to a switching station (proposed) in James City County.  The line, known as the Surry-Skiffes Creek line, would require 17 towers of up to about 300 feet high.  Various groups, including the National Trust for Historic Preservation, have raised objections about the proposed line’s potential impact on Jamestown and other historic sites in the area.  Details from Dominion about the proposal area available online at https://www.dom.com/about/electric-transmission/skiffes/.

Energy company wants to build natural gas power plant in Salem Township [Pennsylvania], Scranton Times-Tribune, 6/20/14.  As of mid-June, 2014, Moxie Energy, LLC, headquartered in Vienna, Va., (Fairfax County), was proposing to build a 900-megawatt, natural-gas-fired power plant in Salem Township, in Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania, according to a spokesperson with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (DEP).  The company is also building natural-gas-fired plants in the Pennsylvania counties of Bradford and Lycoming.  These areas of Pennsylvania are underlain by the Marcellus shale formation that has been the basis of a large increase in natural gas production in recent years.  A Pennsylvania DEP map showing that state’s counties in the Marcellus shale formation is available online at http://www.dep.state.pa.us/dep/deputate/minres/oilgas/2011PermitDrilledmaps.htm.

Environmentalist group[s] sues Red River Coal Co., Bristol Herald Courier, 6/5/14.  On June 5, 2014, in the Big Stone Gap office of the U.S. District Court for the Western District of Virginia, Southern Appalachian Mountain Stewards, the Sierra Club, and Appalachian Voices filed a lawsuit over alleged Clean Water Act violations by Red River Coal Company in its coal-mining operations in Wise County, Virginia (in the Pound River/Big Sandy River basin).

Governor McAuliffe Signs Executive Order to Establish the Virginia Energy Council, Virginia Governor’s Office News Release, 6/4/14.  On June 4, 2014, Virginia Gov. Terry McCauliffe announced formation of the Virginia Energy Council and the beginning of a process to develop the 2014 Virginia Energy Plan.   This comprehensive strategy for Virginia’s energy industries will be an update to the 2010 plan (available online at http://www.dmme.virginia.gov/DE/VEP_TitlePage.html).  The 2014 plan is to be submitted to the Virginia General Assembly by October 1, 2014.

Warner pushes to make oil transportation safer, Richmond Times-Dispatch, 6/5/14.  At a June 2, 2014, forum at the Virginia Department of Transportation in Richmond, U.S. Sen. Mark Warner (D-Va.) called for increased federal regulatory scrutiny of shipments by rail of crude oil, for investments by oil and rail companies into safer fuel tanker cars, and for such companies to provide financial aid for state and local responders to rail accidents.  Sen. Warner’s comments and the forum were in response to the April 30, 2014, derailment in Lynchburg and other recent incidents with fuels being transported by rail.  (For more on the Lynchburg derailment, including many related news articles published since then, please the Grouper item Oil-train Derailment on April 30, 2014, along James River in Lynchburg, Va.; News Updates Through June 18, 2014.)

Carbon Emissions from Existing Power Plants to be Reduced by 30% Nationwide under Proposed Regulation Released by U.S. EPA on June 2, 2014; States Would Have Individually Set Reduction Targets

On June 2, 2014, the U.S. EPA announced its proposed regulation to require existing power plants to reduce their emission of carbon dioxide and other carbon compounds (often referred to as “greenhouse gases”) that contribute to global warming and climate change.  The proposed rule was published in the June 18, 2014, Federal Register, starting  on page 34829; the Web site for searching the Federal Register is https://www.federalregister.gov/articles/search.  From that publication date, the proposed regulation had an initial 120-day public-comment period, until October 16, 2014, but in an October 23, 2014, “Notice of Date Availability” (see links below under “Documents from EPA”), the agency extended the public-comment deadline until December 1, 2014.   The EPA intends to publish a final version, with responses to the public comments it receives, by June 2015.

According to the proposal, the regulation aims by 2030 to cut annual carbon emissions from the power sector by 26 to 30 percent nationwide below 2005 levels; EPA also predicts that it would result in a “co-benefit” of a 25-percent or more cut in emissions of particles, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur dioxide, substances that have impacts on human health (such as asthma) and on water resources when they are deposited into water bodies.  The EPA’s news release on the proposal states that the regulation would be implemented “through a state-federal partnership under which states identify a path forward using either current or new electricity production and pollution control policies to meet the goals of the proposed program.”  Under the proposed rule, states would have individual emission-reduction levels (the approximately 30-percent level is for the nation as a whole; the individual state goals are given in Section VII of the proposed rule, starting on page 332.)  States would have until 2016 (with possible 1-2 year extensions) to submit to EPA their plans for implementing the regulation.  States would be allowed to “choose a mix of generation using diverse fuels, energy efficiency, and demand-side management to meet the goals and their own needs.”  States would be allowed to develop individual plans or to combine their plans with other states.

An interactive map of power-generating plants in the mid-Atlantic region (including Virginia)—allowing users to click on a location to see emissions of carbon dioxide and gases—is available from the EPA at http://www.epa.gov/reg3artd/globclimate/r3pplants.html.

A July 2014 report assessing what large electric-utility companies are already doing in the areas of energy efficiency and use of renewable energy sources (two of the four main ways the EPA proposes that state reduce carbon emissions) is available online at http://www.ceres.org/resources/reports/benchmarking-utility-clean-energy-deployment-2014.

The proposed regulation on existing power plants follows EPA’s release in September 2013 (January 2014 publication in the Federal Register) of a proposed rule on carbon emissions from new power-generating sources; the public-comment period for that proposal ended May 9, 2014 (extended from the original deadline of January 8, 2014).  The September proposal replaced a March 27, 2012, proposal that received some 2.5 million comments from the public.  The regulatory actions on new and existing plants both come under Section 111 of the federal Clean Air Act.  Information from the EPA on the agency’s overall program on carbon emissions is available online at http://www2.epa.gov/carbon-pollution-standards/what-epa-doing#overview.  The EPA actions are part of the federal government’s response to President Obama’s Climate Action Plan, announced on June 25, 2013.  White House information on that plan is available online at http://www.whitehouse.gov/share/climate-action-plan.

Documents from EPA:
Clean Power Proposed Rule, online at http://www2.epa.gov/carbon-pollution-standards/clean-power-plan-proposed-rule.

EPA Proposes First Guidelines to Cut Carbon Pollution from Existing Power Plants, U.S. EPA News Release, 6/2/14.

Clean Power Plan Proposed Rule Notice of Data Availability, online at http://www2.epa.gov/carbon-pollution-standards/clean-power-plan-proposed-rule-notice-data-availability, 10/28/14.

EPA Provides Additional Information on Clean Power Plan/Agency requests public comment on additional information and proposes carbon goals for areas in Indian Country and U.S. Territories, News Release, 10/28/14.

Commonwealth of Virginia documents:
Virginia comments submitted 11/14/14 to EPA on the draft regulation: http://www.deq.virginia.gov/Portals/0/DEQ/Air/Planning/vacommentstoepa.pdf (16 pages).

News accounts on the proposal and related matters, since 6/3/14:

Central Va. electric utilities react to EPA guidelines, Lynchburg News & Advance, 12/10/14. [The article reports on comments submitted to EPA by Appalachian Power Company (American Electric Power), Dominion Power, Central Virginia Electric Cooperative, and Southside Electric Cooperative.]

[Virginia Attorney General Mark] Herring urges changes to EPA emissions proposal, Richmond Times-Dispatch, 12/2/14.

[Virginia U.S. Senator Tim] Kaine asks EPA to give Va. credit in carbon rules, Newport News Daily Press, 12/2/14.

Dominion Virginia Power customers could see bills rise 30 percent by 2025 to meet EPA plan, Richmond Times-Dispatch, 11/19/14; and Lawmakers express concerns over proposed EPA rules Associated Press, as published by Richmond Times-Dispatch, 11/19/14.  [Both articles report on the 11/19/14 meeting of joint meeting of the Commerce and Labor committees of the Virginia House of Delegates and Virginia Senate, to hear from agency staff and others on details of proposed regulations.]

Groups rallying in Va. to support Clean Power Plan, [rally by environmental groups at State Capitol on November 19, 2014], Associated Press, as published by Richmond Times-Dispatch, 11/19/14.

Virginia DEQ says proposed carbon emission rules unfair to the state, Richmond Times-Dispatch, 11/15/14.

McAuliffe applauds EPA’s carbon intent, questions details, Daily Press, 11/14/14.

Va. groups to present clean power comments, Associated Press, as published by Richmond Times-Dispatch, 11/12/14.

Scientists offer help on Va. carbon reduction goal, Associated Press, as published by Richmond Times-Dispatch, 11/11/14 [Fifteen Va. scientists’ letter to Gov. McCauliffe offering help on meeting federal carbon-reduction goals].

SCC [State Corporation Commission] staff says Virginia electricity will cost ‘significantly more’ under proposed EPA carbon rules, Richmond Times-Dispatch, 10/16/14.

Virginia power plants not among the 100 ‘dirtiest’ polluters, Daily Press, 9/19/14 [Environment Virginia report on carbon emissions by Virginia power plants and those in other states].

Carbon capturing about ready for prime time, experts say, Richmond Times-Dispatch, 6/8/14 [part of a series on carbon capture and sequestration].

New EPA rule seeks to cut carbon emissions 30% by 2030, Los Angeles Times, 6/1/14.
Obama Orders Pollution Cuts—But Timing Uncertain, Associated Press, as published by ABC News, 6/2/14.
EPA proposes cutting carbon dioxide emissions from coal plants 30% by 2030, Washington Post, 6/2/14.
Everything you need to know about the EPA’s proposed rule on coal plants, Washington Post, 6/2/14.
Taking Page from Health Care Act, Obama Climate Plan Relies on States, New York Times, 6/2/14.
Dominion analyzes Obama power plant rules, Kingsport [Tenn.] Times News, 6/2/14.
[West Va. Gov.] Tomblin: ‘Our worst fears’; power companies studying it, Charleston Gazette, 6/2/14.
Latest EPA rules signal a bleaker future for coal, Arizona Republic [Phoenix], 6/2/14.
Carbon-cutting plan seen as historic, Richmond Times-Dispatch, 6/3/14.
Regulations’ impact on electric rates is unclear, Richmond Times-Dispatch, 6/3/14.
Obama climate rule promises early health benefits, Chicago Tribune, 6/3/14.

Coal Ash Spill into Dan River after Feb. 2, 2014, Pipe Break at Duke Energy Ash-storage Basin in Eden, N.C.: Information Sources and Related News Articles through Apr. 27, 2015

February 2, 2015, marked the one-year anniversary of the Dan River coal-ash spill that resulted from the collapse of a stormwater pipe under a coal-ash storage basin at the Duke Energy’s Dan River Station in Eden, North Carolina.  The Eden station was a coal-fired power plant that operated between 1949 and 2012.  The break spilled an estimated 39,000 tons of coal ash from the ash-storage basin into the Dan River.  According to Duke Energy and news accounts, the coal ash contained large amounts of calcium, silica, and other elements that do not pose a human health risk, but that it also contained smaller amounts of heavy metals such as arsenic, mercury, and selenium.

Through the first week after the spill, Danville officials reported that tests showed that water provided by the city’s water-supply plan was meeting all public-health standards and so far had not needed any special treatment processes.  Also during that week, the City of Virginia Beach as of February 5 had taken the precaution of stopping temporarily pumping Dan River water into supply reservoirs.

Ecological impacts were (and remain, as of one year later) another, longer-term concern.  On February 18, 2014, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service officials stated that material from the spill has been found on the bottom of the Dan River in depths from one inch to five inches as far downstream as 70 miles.  One official stated that while the deposits and impacts vary with river characteristics, areas of concern include impacts on mussels, immature insects, other stream-bottom invertebrates (animals without backbones), and the fish that feed on stream-bottom invertebrates.

On March 6, 2014, North Carolina Superior Court Judge Paul Ridgeway ruled that state law required Duke Energy to take immediate action to stop groundwater pollution resulting from coal-ash storage ponds at the company’s 14 coal-fired power plants (some operating, some closed).  Judge Ridgeway ruled in favor of environmental groups who in 2012 appealed a decision by the N.C. Environmental Management Commission (EMC) that did not require immediate clean-up action, but rather allowed the N.C. Department of Environment and Natural Resources to give Duke “a reasonable time” to take corrective actions.

On March 10, 2014, the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) issued a news release on the agency’s ongoing evaluation of effects on the Dan River; the DEQ reported that treated drinking water have “consistently met or exceeded all applicable federal and state standards,” and that “there are no public health concerns with drinking water” in Virginia.  The DEQ stated that their focus was on “the health of the Dan River over the long term” (water quality, aquatic life, and aquatic habitat).  In the March 10 release, DEQ Director David Paylor said the several years of monitoring would likely be needed.

On March 13, 2014, the Associated Press reported that Duke estimated that it would need two years to clean up the coal-ash storage facility that led to the February 2 spill, along with two other storage facilities located beside rivers near Asheville and Charlotte.  At the time, the company had some three dozen storage facilities statewide.

After the initial emergency phase, the impacts of the spill continued to be closely watched and reported, particularly in Danville, Va., and Greensboro, N.C.  A year later, the environmental impacts seem to have limited to certain areas, and signs of recovery had been observed by scientists, but longer-term impacts are still possible and continue to be monitored.  The spill, however, also had financial, political, legal/regulatory consequences, particularly in North Carolina, and as of February 2015, a grand jury was still investigating possible civil or criminal charges.

Following are some agency sources of information and then a compilation of news media headlines (annotated in some cases) about the spill from and its consequences for coal-ash storage and management.

AGENCY INFORMATION SOURCES (as of 4/29/15)
City of Danville, Va.: http://www.danville-va.gov/Search/Results?searchPhrase=Coal%20Ash&page=1&perPage=10.

U.S. EPA, “Final Rule: Disposal of Coal Combustion Residuals from Electric Utilities,” published in Federal Register on 4/17/15, online at http://www2.epa.gov/coalash/coal-ash-rule.

Virginia Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ), “Dan River Coal Ash Spill,” http://www.deq.virginia.gov/ConnectWithDEQ/EnvironmentalInformation/DanRiverCoalAshSpill.aspx. (Includes links to other sources of information, as well.)

Virginia Department of Health Coal Ash Fact Sheet, 3/19/14, online (PDF) at http://www.vdh.virginia.gov/CoalAsh.pdf.

North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, “Dan River Coal Ash Spill,” http://portal.ncdenr.org/web/guest/dan-river-spill

NEWS MEDIA ACCOUNTS, 2/3/14 to 4/27/15
(on the event and on related developments for coal-ash management)

(Newest listed first; all links were working at time of posting, but some may not be at a later date)

COMPREHENSIVE ACCOUNT: The Day the River Turned Gray—The Dan River Coal Ash Disaster, Greensboro News-Record, 2/1/15.

Coal ash pond at Possum Point Power Station outside Dumfries will be drained, Potomac Local, 4/27/15.

Dominion Virginia Power to close coal ash ponds in state, Richmond Times-Dispatch, 4/17/15.

Proposed consent order imposes $2.5 million settlement on Duke Energy Carolinas for Dan River coal ash spill, Virginia Department of Environmental Quality News Release, 4/3/15.  Related media accounts: Duke Energy, Virginia agree to $2.5 million coal ash settlement, Richmond Times-Dispatch, 4/3/15; Duke, Virginia agree to $2.5 million coal ash settlement, Associated Press, as published by Roanoke Times, 4/3/15; Duke Energy to pay Virginia $2.5 million for Dan River spill, Charlotte (N.C.) Observer, 4/3/15.

Duke Energy fined $25 million over coal ash pollution, Associated Press, as published by Washington Post, 3/10/15 [North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources proposed fine for groundwater contamination from two coal-ash storage pits at a closed electric-power plant near Wilmington].

Duke pollution could continue under proposed permits, Associated Press, as published by Virginian-Pilot, 3/6/15 [regarding discharges that would be allowed under wastewater permits proposed by North Carolina regulators on 3/6/15].

Groups threaten suit over coal ash pits contaminating VA waters, Bay Journal, 2/26/15.  [In late 2014, the Southern Environmental Law Center filed two notices of intent to sue Dominion Virginia Power plants for alleged leaks of toxic substances into groundwater and surface waters from coal-ash storage pits at the Possum Point Power Plant on Quantico Creek in Virginia about 30 miles south of Washington, D.C., and at Chesapeake Energy Center on the Elizabeth River in Chesapeake, Va.]

U.S. charges Duke with illegal pollution from 5 coal ash dumps, Associated Press, as published by Washington Post, 2/20/15.  [Duke stated on Feb. 20 that it had already negotiated a plea agreement levying $102 million in fines and other costs for alleged illegal practices since at least 2010.]

Dan River recovering after coal ash spill as fines weighed, Associated Press, as published by Washington Post, 2/1/15.

Weathering the coal ash storm, Danville Register & Bee, 2/1/15.

Fund applications begin to revitalize river after neglect, ash spill, Danville Register & Bee, 2/1/15. [The RiverBank Fund was established in summer 2014 for donations for revitalization and protection of the Dan River.]

In addressing [Danville City Council on Jan.20, 2014], Duke Energy official says EPA rules coal ash “non-hazardous”, Danville Register & Bee, 1/20/15.

One report puts Dan River coal ash spill damage at $295 million, Greensboro [N.C.] News & Record, as published by Roanoke Times, 12/4/14.  [This article reports on the estimate published by Wake Forest University biologist Dennis Lemly in the scientific journal Environmental Pollution (to be in the February 2015 print edition, pages 55-61)The article notes that staff from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, North Carolina Department of Environmental and Natural Resources, and the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality are developing their own estimate of damages.]

Concerns flow at forum on spill, Danville Register & Bee, 11/17/14 [at 11/17/14 panel forum in Danville held by the University of Virginia’s Institute for Environmental Negotiation and Virginia Cooperative Extension].

Impact of coal ash disaster discussed, Danville Register & Bee, 11/14/14 [at 11/14/14 panel discussion in Danville held by several local organizations].

After The Spill: Coal Ash & The Dan River/Economic & Environmental Concerns Linger [3:21 audio, with transcript available online], WVTF-FM (Virginia Tech public radio station), 11/17/14.

Duke makes plans to move coal ash/Material in Eden basin would be sent via train to lined landfill in Virginia, Danville Register & Bee, 11/13/14.

Coal ash impact discussions scheduled, Danville Register & Bee, 11/9/14.

Feds override NC on draining coal ash dumps, Associated Press, as published by Yahoo Finance, 10/3/14.

Duke’s coal ash warning late, downplayed for N.C., Greenville, N.C., News & Record, as published online by Danville Register & Bee, 8/25/14.

Could a coal-ash spill happen in Virginia? Regulators, utilities brace for new federal regulations in December [2014], Virginia Business, 7/30/14.

Weathering a crisis: Coal ash spill overshadowed major changes in [Danville, Va.] city’s River District, Virginia Business, 7/30/14.

What spill? Along the Dan River, people just go with the flow, [Greensboro, N.C.] News & Record, as published by godanriver.com, 7/28/14.  [Describes recreation along the Dan Rive in Eden, North Carolina, on July 27, 2014, about a week after North Carolina officials removed a recreation advisory.]

Virginia Tech researchers search for ways to better trace effects of coal ash spills, Roanoke Times, 7/21/14 [$25,000 National Science Foundation Rapid Response Research grant for Virginia Tech scientists Madeline Schreiber, Marc Michel, and Ben Gill to map the movement of contaminants that were in the spilled ash].

NC, Va. groups to monitor coal ash in Dan River, Associated Press, as published in Roanoke Times, 7/21/14. [The groups are the Dan River Basin Association and the Roanoke River Basin Association (the Dan River is a Roanoke River tributary.  The Virginia Department of Environmental Quality plans to monitor fish and river sediments for two years.]

Law group says 94 percent of deposit still in river, Danville Register & Bee, 7/21/14 [Southern Environmental Law Center raised concerns about some 37,000 tons of coal ash not removed during Duke Energy’s removal project behind the Schoolfield Dam in Danville, which removed about 2500 tons].

EPA says Dan River back to pre-coal ash spill quality, godanriver.com, 7/15/14.

N.C. orders Duke Energy to act after finding more faulty pipes, [Greensboro, N.C.] News & Record, as published online by Danville Register & Bee, 6/27/14.

Duke to begin cleanup near Eden, [Greensboro, N.C.] News and Record, as published by godanriver.com, 6/19/14.

Records show Duke Energy was warned of spill pipe [in a 1986 engineering report], Associated Press, as published by Roanoke Times, 6/19/14.

Duke concerned by coal ash pit closure deadlines, [in legislation proposed in North Carolina to require closure by 2029], Associated Press, as published by GoDanRiver.com, 6/16/14.

Coal ash deal viewed as step in the right direction, Henderson [N.C.] Daily Dispatch, 6/12/14.

NC, Va. sign deal with Duke for Dan River cleanup, Associated Press, as published by Richmond Times-Dispatch, 6/10/14.

There’s more than one way to wipe up a spill [companies offering alternative methods of cleaning up Dan River coal-ash spill], [Greensboro, N.C.] News & Record, as published by Lynchburg News & Advance, 5/27/14.

Duke Energy signs deal with EPA to cleanup coal ash spill in Dan River, Energy Business Review, 5/26/14.

Virginia Beach to resume using [Lake Gaston] water after spill, Associated Press, as published by Danville Register & Bee, 5/20/14.

Concerns grow in Giles County as DEQ waits on EPA to make coal ash regulations, WDBJ-TV (Roanoke), 5/15/14.

Top leaders [in North Carolina Senate] introduce coal ash bill [regarding Duke Energy clean-up of storage and disposal sites and procedures], Associated Press, as published by Danville Register & Bee, 5/14/14.

North Carolina county objects to coal ash dumping [members of the Person County, N.C., Board of Commissioners are to consider a resolution opposing use of their county solid-waste landfill for disposal of coal ash removed from the Dan River in Danville], Danville Register & Bee, as published by Roanoke Times, 5/13/14.

Coal ash clean-up begins, Danville Register & Bee, 5/12/14 [clean-up of about 2500 cubic yards of ash from Dan River behind Schoolfield Dam in Danville; expected to be completed in late June 2014.]

Dan River Coal Ash Problems Not Over, Experts Say, TriplePundit, 5/7/14.
Experts say coal ash in Dan River a moving target, [Greensboro, N.C.] News & Record, 5/4/14.

Shareholders, protesters, speak out to Duke board [meeting in Charlotte, N.C., on 5/1/14], Associated Press, as published by Danville Register & Bee, 5/1/14.

City [Danville, Va.] hiring specialist to handle ash claims, Danville Register & Bee, 4/29/14.

Outside of coal ash spill area, merchants [in N.C.] say Dan River open for business, Greensboro, N.C., News & Record, as posted by Danville Register & Bee, 4/27/14.

Duke Energy: Moving coal ash in NC would cost up to $10 billion, Associated Press, as published by Richmond Times-Dispatch, 4/23/14.  [The company also told a North Carolina legislative committee that the ash transfer would take decades.]

Farmers told Dan River acceptable for use, Danville Register & Bee, as published by Richmond Times-Dispatch, 4/22/14.

Coal ash spill effects not yet known; It’s too early to say if the Dan River will suffer biologically, experts on the environment said, Danville Register & Bee, as published by Roanoke Times, 4/21/14.

[North Carolina Gov.] McCrory’s coal ash plan is roiling debate in his own party, [Greensboro N.C.] News & Record, as published by Danville Register & Bee, 4/21/14.

[North Carolina Gov.] McCrory proposes new plan [for legislation] after spill, Associated Press, as published by Danville Register & Bee, 4/16/14.

Coal ash deposits headed to N.C. dry landfill, Danville Register & Bee, 4/14/14 [deposits removed from Dan River near Schoolfield Dam in Danville, Va.].

Dan River water safe for farm use, N.C. State study claims Associated Press, as published by Roanoke Times, 4/18/14.

Coal ash storage a New River worry, Roanoke Times, 4/12/14 [regarding two coal-ash storage sites and one site where coal ash was used to created level land for industrial or commercial development, all in Giles County, Va.].

State And Federal Agencies Talk To Citizens About Coal Ash, WSET-TV [Lynchburg-Danville-Roanoke], 4/14/14; and EPA to discuss river clean up , Danville Register & Bee, 4/9/14 [open-house meeting by federal and state agencies, held in Danville on April 14].

NC sides with Duke in appeal of ruling [North Carolina Environmental Management Commission joining Duke Energy in appealing March 6, 2014, ruling by North Carolina Superior Court Judge Paul Ridgeway on the state’s authority to require faster clean-up of Duke’s coal-ash storage facilities], Associated Press, as published by Danville Register & Bee, 4/8/14.

City wants study of water alternatives  [City of Danville’s Request for Proposals to study coal ash and any other upstream contaminants of concern to the city’s drinking water treatment plant], Danville Register & Bee, 4/7/14.

NC judge denies Duke motion to seal coal ash docs  [ruling on April 4 in North Carolina’s civil case filed in 2013 over alleged groundwater pollution for 33 coal-ash storage facilities in the state], Associated Press, as published by Danville Register & Bee, 4/4/14.

Duke Energy says it needs time to clean coal ash [comments by Duke President and CEO at Charlotte, N.C., business-group lunch on April 2], Associated Press, as published by Danville Register & Bee, 4/2/14.

EPA was concerned about North Carolina deal on Duke ash dumps  [Sept. 2013 EPA comments about proposed settlement including $99,000 state fine over two Duke storage facilities; that settlement proposal was withdrawn in late March 2014 in the wake of the Feb. 2 spill], Associated Press, as published by Danville Register & Bee, 4/2/14.

Duke Energy wants citizens group out of ash action [motion filed March 31, 2014, in North Carolina enforcement-action case], Associated Press, as published by Danville Register & Bee, 4/1/14.

Concerns Linger for N.C. Residents After Coal Ash Spill, National Public Radio (NPR) “Morning Edition,” 4/2/14 (3 min./43 sec. audio report; includes comments on agricultural concerns in North Carolina and in Virginia).

River cleaning equipment arrives in Danville , Danville Register & Bee, 3/31/14; and Park to close for ash cleanup , Danville Register & Bee, 3/28/14 [Danville’s Abreu-Grogan Park to be closed from April 2 through June for removal of about 2300 cubic yards of ash that collected near a dam on the Dan River].

Environmental group against putting coal ash in landfills , Danville Register & Bee, 3/30/14 [Blue Ridge Environmental Defense League, headquartered in Glendale Springs, N.C., released a report on March 24 that called for placing coal ash in concrete tanks rather than lined landfills].

Duke Energy seeks to keep records from regulators , Associated Press, as published by Danville Register & Bee, 3/28/14.

Duke shareholders want probe of coal ash spill , Associated Press, as published by Danville Register & Bee, 3/28/14.

Ponds in the game? [an overview of the use of ponds, or lagoons, for storage of coal-combustion ash], Chesterfield Observer, 3/26/14.

Ash spill costs top $12,722 locally–so far [costs incurred by Halifax County, Va., Service Authority, as of 3/20/14], South Boston Gazette-Virginian, 3/24/14.

Lawyer hired by NC in spill probe represented Duke, Associated Press, as published by GoDanRiver.com, 3/24/14.

Farmers along Dan River worry about livelihood, [Greensboro, N.C.] News & Record, as published by GoDanRiver.com, 3/24/14.

Danville feeling toxic economic effects of spill, Associated Press, as published by Richmond Times-Dispatch, 3/22/14.  [This is a fairly detailed overview of the current and potential impacts of the spill on Danville, Va.]

Dan River coal-ash pollution angers and worries Virginians, Raleigh News & Observer, 3/22/14.

Environmental groups push Duke to clean up ash ponds at rally, Danville Register & Bee, 3/22/14.

Regulators say Duke pumped coal ash into NC river [61 million gallons of water from coal-ash-storage site into Cape Fear River], Associated Press, as published by Washington Post, 3/20/14.

Group wants to intervene in Dan River coal ash case [Southern Environmental Law Center], Associated Press, as published by Richmond Times-Dispatch, 3/20/14.

Risks to coal ash pipe apparently cast aside [information in consultant report to U.S. EPA in September 2009 recommending that stormwater pipes be checked apparently not passed on to N.C. officials],  [Greensboro, N.C.] News & Record, as published by Roanoke Times, 3/20/14.

[Va. Gov.] McAuliffe expects Duke Energy to pay for coal ash spill, Associated Press, as published by Richmond Times-Dispatch, 3/19/14.

Gov. McAuliffe tours Danville water treatment plant, WSET-TV Lynchburg, 3/18/14.

Vacuums to pull coal ash from Schoolfield dam, Danville Register & Bee, 3/18/14.

Dominion: Yorktown coal ash landfill lacks Dan River potential, [Newport News] Daily Press, 3/18/14.

Tweak to N.C. law protected Duke Energys coal ash pits, Associated Press, as published by Roanoke Times, 3/18/14.

N.C. probes wastewater dumping at Duke plant [near Cape Fear River in Moncure, N.C.], Associated Press, as published by Washington Post, 3/18/14.

Duke pledges to remove ash landfill by Dan River, South Boston New & Record, 3/17/14; N.C. wants faster coal ash removal, Danville Register & Bee, 3/17/14; and Duke: Cleanup at Dan River plant will take 2 years, Associated Press, as published by Danville Register & Bee, 3/13/14 [regarding Duke Energy’s statewide coal-ash clean-up plan, as described in the company’s March 12, 2014, letter to North Carolina Governor Pat McCrory and Department of Environment and Natural Resources Secretary John Skvarla].

Virginia regulators take long view on N.C. coal ash spill [reporting on Va. DEQ news release on 3/10/14], Associated Press, as published by Roanoke Times, 3/10/14.

Virginia’s response to coal ash spill focuses on long-term health of Dan River, Virginia Department of Environmental Quality News Release, 3/10/14.

Judge rules Duke must halt groundwater pollution at coal ash sites, Raleigh News & Observer, 3/6/14.

N.C. officials want pipes at Duke plants probed [via video cameras inside pipes at 14 facilities], Associated Press, as published by Danville Register & Bee, 3/5/14.

Duke Energy plants cited over Dan River spill; the North Carolina company lacked permits to discharge rainwater into public waterways, Associated Press, as published in Roanoke Times, 3/4/14.

Frustration rises as long-term impact of spill goes unanswered, South Boston News & Record, 3/3/14.

Bottle water sales spike after spill, Danville Register & Bee, 3/1/14.

Coal ash spill costs [Halifax County, Va., Service Authority] authority $10,000 so far [for extra staff time and treatment chemicals], South Boston Gazette-Virginian, 2/28/14.

N.C. governor to Duke: Move ash ponds, Danville Register & Bee, 2/27/14.

Coal ash site called ticking time bomb” [Danville City and other public officials tour of spill site in N.C. on Feb 25], Danville Register & Bee, 2/25/14.

NC could force Duke to move dump away from river, Associated Press, as published by Lynchburg News & Advance, 2/25/14.

Damage toll from spill estimated at $70 million; could rise by 10 times, [Greensboro, N.C.] News & Record, as published in Lynchburg News & Advance, 2/25/14.

EPA to South Boston: Our emergency response continues, South Boston Gazette-Virginian, 2/21/14.

Whats in the fish?—Virginia DEQ begins testing fish in Dan River, Danville Register & Bee, 2/20/14.

Investigation into N.C. coal ash spill widens [with subpoenas to additional 20 N.C. state employees], Associated Press, as published by Richmond Times-Dispatch, 2/19/14.

Duke Energy: Customers will not pay for river cleanup, Danville Register & Bee, 2/19/14.

Duke Energy says leak at second pipe halted, Danville Register & Bee, 2/19/14.
Toxins [arsenic] leaking from 2nd pipe at coal ash dump, Richmond Times-Dispatch, 2/19/14.

North Carolina coal ash spill raises questions about enforcement of environmental regulations, PBS NewsHour video report (6 min./57 sec).

Official: Coal ash will not affect wastewater treatment, Danville Register & Bee, 2/17/14.

Scenic River designation likely not in danger, Danville Register & Bee, 2/17/14.
EPA officials visit South Boston Thursday to meet with public, South Boston News & Record, 2/17/14.

Danville mayor: City not taking spill lightly, Danville Register & Bee, 2/16/14.
U.S. [Attorney’s Office in Raleigh] investigates N.C. coal ash spill, Richmond Times-Dispatch, 2/14/14.

What happens when the river floods?, Danville Register & Bee, 2/13/14.
Resident reports dead turtles, missing wildlife, Danville Register & Bee, 2/13/14.

[Halifax County Service Authority Executive] Director: Drinking water safe, South Boston Gazette-Virginian, 2/12/14.

State, EPA say public water OK after spill on Dan River; [plus, the Va. DEQ plans to review storage compliance at 12 Virginia coal-ash ponds], Richmond Times-Dispatch, 2/12/14.

Testing shows city water still within federal standards, Danville Register & Bee, 2/11/14.

Drinking water safe, but Va. Beach shuts off pipeline, South Boston News & Record, 2/12/14.

Duke [Energy] plans to dredge river as coal ash deal [is] dumped, Associated Press, as published in Washington Post, 2/11/14.

EPA checking water, sediment, Danville Register & Bee, 2/10/14.

Survivors of Americas largest coal ash spill talk about experiences, Danville Register & Bee, 2/10/14 (interviews with people affected by the December 2008 coal-ash spill in Roane County, Tenn.).

A disaster that Duke, regulators didnt see, South Boston News & Record, 2/10/14 (a very detailed account of recent developments and background of the situation).

NC admits mistake, says arsenic topped safe level, Associated Press, as published in Richmond Times-Dispatch, 2/10/14.

NC regulators shielded Duke’s coal ash pollution, Associated Press, as published in Richmond Times-Dispatch, 2/9/14.

[Virginia] Beach official: Past study shows spill won’t foul water, Norfolk Virginian-Pilot, 2/814.

Virginia water supplies so far unaffected by Dan River coal ash spill, Richmond Times-Dispatch, 2/8/14.

Drinking water safe; potential threat posed to aquatic life, South Boston Gazette-Virginian, 2/7/14.

Water remains safe as work continues to stop leak at Eden site, Danville Register & Bee, 2/6/14.

Coal ash continues to settle in Dan River, Lynchburg News & Advance, 2/6/14.

Tests show different arsenic levels in NC spill, Associated Press, as published in Richmond Times-Dispatch, 2/6/14.

Its like a lava flow moving slowly toward Danville, Danville Register & Bee, 2/5/14.

Coal ash: Its still leaking, Danville Register & Bee, 2/5/14.

Coal waste deposits turn up 70 miles from spill, South Boston Gazette-Virginian, 2/20/14.
Coal ash lines river 70 miles from N.C. spill site, Associated Press, as published in Virginian-Pilot, 2/18/14.

Va. Beach halts water pumping after coal ash spill, Virginian-Pilot, 2/5/14.

And the river ran gray, Danville Register & Bee, 2/4/14.

City: Danvilles drinking water safe, Danville Register & Bee, 2/4/14.

Broken pipe spills coal ash in Dan River, Danville Register & Bee, 2/3/14.