Category Archives: Water Supply

Eastern Va. Groundwater Withdrawals to be Reduced by 69 Million Gallons per Day, According to Agreements with Large Permit Holders Announced in December 2017

On December 13, 2017, Va. Gov. Terry McAuliffe announced agreements between the Commonwealth and large groundwater-user permit holders in eastern Virginia to reduce permitted withdrawals.

Below is an excerpt from the Governor’s Office news release on the agreement, Governor McAuliffe Announces Agreements to Protect Virginia’s Aquifers; New permits will support future growth and ensure continued access to clean water, 12/13/17:
“Governor Terry McAuliffe today announced agreements to limit groundwater withdrawals from the Commonwealth’s at-risk coastal aquifers.  The Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) will issue new permits for 14 major groundwater users in eastern Virginia, reducing total allowable withdrawals by 69 million gallons a day.  …Since 1992, the DEQ has reviewed requests to withdraw large quantities of groundwater in the coastal plain.  Permits are issued to industry, municipal water supplies, agriculture, and large residential developments.  Over pumping has led to significant groundwater declines, measured land subsidence, and increasing saltwater intrusion.  …When Governor McAuliffe took office, permits had been issued allowing for the withdrawal of 146 million gallons of groundwater per day.  By working with the Commonwealth, the permittees found ways to reduce their allowable consumption by as much as 52 percent.”

Following is a link to a news media article on the permits agreement: State reaches deals with large water users to preserve aquifers, Richmond Times-Dispatch, 12/15/17.

Information from the DEQ on water withdrawal (both groundwater and surface water) is available online at http://www.deq.virginia.gov/Programs/Water/WaterSupplyWaterQuantity/WaterWithdrawalPermittingandCompliance.aspx; information specifically on groundwater withdrawal management areas and permits is available online at http://www.deq.virginia.gov/Programs/Water/WaterSupplyWaterQuantity/WaterWithdrawalPermittingandCompliance/GroundwaterWithdrawalPermitsFees.aspx.

Virginia Water Status Report as of the End of November 2017, Plus a Look at Drought Nationally

Here is the Virginia Water Central News Grouper’s monthly water-status report on precipitation, stream flow, and drought, as of the end of November 2017.  The Virginia Water Resources Research Center thanks the agencies mentioned below for providing the data and maps used in this post.  Icons for precipitation, stream flow, and drought are by George Wills of Blacksburg, Va. (https://www.etsy.com/people/BlacksburgArt).  For previous monthly water status reports, please see this link: https://vawatercentralnewsgrouper.wordpress.com/?s=Water+Status.

01 Icon Precip

Here are National Weather Service (NWS) preliminary (still needing verification) precipitation totals for November 2017 at 11 Virginia or near-Virginia locations, along with the “normal” (three-decade average) for this month of the year at each location.  Also shown are the precipitation totals at each location for the previous 12 months and the annual precipitation normals for each location.  The values are in inches.

Location November 2017 Observed Monthly Normal December 2016-

November 2017 Observed

Annual Normal
Blacksburg 1.23 2.87 43.35 40.89

 

Bluefield1

 

1.37 2.69 42.53 39.63
Bristol2

 

1.10 3.10 46.72 41.01
Charlottesville3

 

0.95 3.83 35.85 42.71
Danville

 

2.07 3.36 43.31 44.41
Lynchburg

 

1.02 3.41 35.33 41.57
Norfolk

 

1.17 3.15 49.30 46.53
Richmond

 

1.43 3.24 39.71 43.60
Roanoke

 

0.70 3.40 39.41 41.25
Wallops Island4

 

1.27 2.87 50.64 40.84
Washington-Dulles Airport5 1.99 3.41 42.25 41.54

 

Location notes
1 – The Bluefield location is the Mercer County, W. Va., airport, near the Va.-W.Va. state line.
2- The Bristol location Tri-Cities Airport in Tenn., about 20 miles from Bristol, Va./Tenn.
3 – The Charlottesville location is the Charlottesville-Albemarle Airport.
4 – Wallops Island is in Accomack County.
5 – Washington-Dulles Airport is in Loudoun County.

Precipitation sources:  Climate pages of the following National Weather Service Forecast Offices:
Blacksburg, Va. (http://www.nws.noaa.gov/climate/index.php?wfo=rnk);
Morristown, Tenn. (http://www.weather.gov/climate/index.php?wfo=mrx;
Baltimore-Washington (http://www.nws.noaa.gov/climate/index.php?wfo=lwx); and
Wakefield, Va. (http://www.nws.noaa.gov/climate/index.php?wfo=akq).

The normal values used by the National Weather Service (NWS) in these provisional reports are based on the period from 1981 to 2010.  The National Climatic Data Center released these normal values in July 2011.  For information on the normal values, see the National Climatic Data Center Web page at http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/data-access/land-based-station-data/land-based-datasets/climate-normals.

For graphs of precipitation, visit the High Plains Regional Climate Center at https://hprcc.unl.edu/maps.php?map=ACISClimateMaps), where you can find maps of total precipitation and percent of normal precipitation for the past 7, 30, 60, or 90 days for all U.S. regions; or the NWS’ Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service at http://water.weather.gov/precip/ for a map of precipitation nationwide or by state, with capability to show county boundaries, and archives available for specific days, months, or years.  Shown below are the preliminary maps of the percent-of-normal precipitation for the southeastern United States for the previous 30 days, 60 days, and 90 days, through December 1, 2017 (through November 30 in the case of the 90-day map).

Precip 30 Dec1Precip 60 Dec 1Precip 90 Nov30 

02 Icon Streamflow
According to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) WaterWatch for Virginia (online at https://waterwatch.usgs.gov/index.php?m=mv01d&r=va&w=map), monthly average stream flow values for November 2017 at 160 stream gages in Virginia and just beyond the state border were as follows, compared to the historical range for each given gage:
within the normal historical range – about 59% of gages;
below normal – about 30%;
much below normal – about 11%.

Shown below is the color-coded, flow-percentile map for this period, accessed online at https://waterwatch.usgs.gov/index.php?m=mv01d&r=va&w=map on 12/5/17.  The color codes/percentile classes used by USGS to compared flows to historical records for the month are shown in the chart below the map.

Streams Nov KEEP on deskto - Stream flow code graph

An overall look at Virginia streamflow conditions is provided in the USGS WaterWatch summary plot of daily average streamflow conditions, compared to historical records for any given date.  Below is the summary plot for 88 Virginia sites during the 45-day period ending December 1, 2017, accessed on 12/5/17 at https://waterwatch.usgs.gov/index.php?id=pa01d&sid=w__plot&r=va.

streams plot Dec1

03 Icon Groundwater
Information on current groundwater levels in Virginia monitoring wells is available from the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water Information System, online at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/va/nwis/current/?type=gw; and from the USGS Climate Response Network, online at http://groundwaterwatch.usgs.gov/net/ogwnetwork.asp?ncd=crn (at that page, you can find a national map showing the status of groundwater monitoring wells compared to historical values).

04 Icon DroughtDROUGHT IN VIRGINIA

The weekly U.S. Drought Monitor map from the University of Nebraska-Lincoln (http://droughtmonitor.unl.edu/) for November 28, 2017, categorized 44.1% of Virginia as “abnormally dry” (covering the southern Piedmont east, plus almost all of Roanoke River basin, the upper Shenandoah basin, the upper James basin, and parts of northern Virginia).  The November 28 report categorized 3.9% of Virginia in “moderate drought” (covering parts of six counties along southern border, just east of Danville).

Drought Monitor categories are as follows:
D0 = abnormally dry;
D1 = moderate drought;
D2 = severe drought;
D3 = extreme drought;
D4 = exceptional drought.

The Drought Monitor notes that it “focuses on broad-scale conditions [and] local conditions may vary.”

For comparison, here are Virginia ratings from previous Drought Monitors from about one month, two months, three months, and one year ago:
10/31/17 – 41.5% abnormally dry or worse; 3.8% moderate drought;
9/26/17 – 18.1% abnormally dry;
8/29/17 – 19.7% abnormally dry;
11/29/16 – 69.1% abnormally dry or worse; 28.4% moderate drought or worse; 4.8% severe drought or worse; 0.9% extreme drought.

The Virginia Drought Monitoring Task Force (DMTF), a collaboration of state and federal agencies, issued its most recent (as of 12/5/17) Drought Status Report on November 3, 2017.  A link to the report, along with other current drought-status information, is available online at http://www.deq.virginia.gov/Programs/Water/WaterSupplyWaterQuantity/Drought.aspx.  The Task Force’s reports typically include information from some or all of the following agencies: University of Virginia Climatology Office, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the Virginia departments of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Health, and Environmental Quality.  The Task Force is next scheduled to meet on December 7 2017.

The Drought Monitoring Task Force also produces a map rating drought-status indicators, both accessed online at http://www.deq.virginia.gov/Programs/Water/WaterSupplyWaterQuantity/Drought/DroughtMonitoring.aspx.  Shown below is the map for November 30, 2017, followed by a map identifying the Drought Evaluation Regions used by the Task Force.  The status-indicator abbreviations on that map are as follows: GW = groundwater levels, Prcp = precipitation deficits, Res – reservoir storage, and Flow = stream flow conditions.  For each region of Virginia, the indicators are color coded for “normal,” “watch,” “warning,” or “emergency conditions.”  Note the fairly widespread watch, warning, and emergency conditions in central Virginia.

Drought VA Nov30VA Drought Evaluation Regions map

DROUGHT ELSEWHERE

The November 28, 2017, U.S. Drought Monitor categorized 35.7% of the United States (including all or parts of 40 states) as being abnormally dry or worse.  The Drought Monitor categorized 4.1% of the country (including parts of 11 states), as being in severe drought or worse (categories D2, D3, and D4).  (The highest percentage in the severe-or-worse categories reported by the Drought Monitor since it began in 2000 was 38.5% of the country for the week of August 7, 2012.)

The nationwide percentages for abnormally dry or worse (categories D0-D4) and severe or worse (categories D2-D4) in the previous three months and one year ago were as follows:
10/31/17 – 28.1% abnormally dry or worse; 2.3% severe drought or worse;
9/26/17 – 31.0% abnormally dry or worse, 4.2% severe drought or worse;
8/29/17 – 25.8% abnormally dry or worse; 4.8% severe drought or worse;
11/29/16 – 46.8% abnormally dry or worse; 10.8% severe drought or worse.

The following state had 50% or more categorized by the November 28 Drought Monitor in severe-or-worse drought:
Arkansas – 61%.

90-DAY DROUGHT OUTLOOK

For a look ahead, the National Weather Service/Climate Prediction Center’s “U.S. Seasonal Drought Outlook” is available at http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/expert_assessment/sdo_summary.php.  Shown below is the outlook map available on December 5, 2017.

Drought Outlook US

 

 

Waterworks Apprenticeship Program for Roanoke County, Va., High School Students Described in 11/14/17 Roanoke Times Article

Roanoke County teen apprentices get a hands-on look at the valley’s waterworks, Roanoke Times, 11/14/17, describes the Western Virginia Water Authority’s apprenticeship program for Roanoke County high school students.  As of the 2017-18 school year, the Water Authority–which supplies water to customers in the City of Roanoke and the counties of Botetourt, Franklin, and Roanoke–had five paid interns and planned to add five more in 2018-19.  The program targets high school juniors.

More information on the Western Virginia Water Authority is available online at http://www.westernvawater.org/.

Proper Well Abandonment is Well Worth Discussing on the 30th Anniversary in 2017 of the Baby Jessica Incident in Texas

On October 16, 1987, 18-month-old Jessica McClure was rescued from an abandoned water well in Midland, Texas.  The October 2017 issue of The Cross Section, from the High Plains Underground Water Conservation District in Lubbock, Tex., recalls the “Baby Jessica” story as a cautionary tale for the proper closure and sealing of wells that will not longer be used—a task of importance not only for safety of humans and animals but also for groundwater protection.  The newsletter is available online at http://www.hpwd.org/the-cross-section/; or contact the District at 2930 Avenue Q, Lubbock, TX 79411-2499l (806) 762-0181.

Following are some Virginia information resources related to well abandonment and sealing in Virginia.

*Virginia law on sealing temporarily or permanently abandoned wells is online at https://law.lis.virginia.gov/admincode/title12/agency5/chapter630/section450/.

*Water well tips from the Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation are available online at http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural-heritage/lokwaterwell, or contact your local Soil and Water Conservation District  (the District Directory is available onlinee at http://vaswcd.org/district-directory).

*“Proper Permanent Well Abandonment for Virginia Coastal Plain Wells,” from the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality and Department of Health, is available online at http://www.deq.virginia.gov/Portals/0/DEQ/Water/GroundwaterPermitting/DocumentsandForms/2017/DEQFactsheet-WellAbandonment2014.pdf?ver=2017-03-23-123639-840.

*Some Virginia localities also provide information on proper well abandonment.

Dry Conditions and Water-supply Responses in Virginia in Fall 2017 Examined in Nov. 6, 2017, Report from WMRA Radio

“What Does DEQ’s Drought Watch Mean?,” broadcast and posted on November 6, 2017, by WMRA FM-Harrisonburg, gives an overview of water-supply conditions in several central and western Virginia localities that were under voluntary or mandatory water-use reductions in fall 2017.

The 5 min./4 sec. audio and transcript are available online at http://wmra.org/post/what-does-deqs-drought-watch-mean#stream/0.

 

Virginia Water Status Report as of the End of October 2017, Plus a Look at Drought Nationally

Here is the Virginia Water Central News Grouper’s monthly water-status report on precipitation, stream flow, and drought, as of the end of October 2017.  The Virginia Water Resources Research Center thanks the agencies mentioned below for providing the data and maps used in this post.  Icons for precipitation, stream flow, and drought are by George Wills of Blacksburg, Va. (https://www.etsy.com/people/BlacksburgArt).  For previous monthly water status reports, please see this link: https://vawatercentralnewsgrouper.wordpress.com/?s=Water+Status.

01 Icon PrecipHere are National Weather Service (NWS) preliminary (still needing verification) precipitation totals for October 2017 at 11 Virginia or near-Virginia locations, along with the “normal” (three-decade average) for this month of the year at each location.  Also shown are the precipitation totals at each location for the previous 12 months and the annual precipitation normals for each location.  The values are in inches.

Location October 2017 Observed Monthly Normal November 2016-October 2017 Observed Annual Normal
Blacksburg 7.72 2.78 43.54 40.89
Bluefield1 5.06 2.50 43.48 39.63
Bristol2 4.45 2.10 48.67 41.01
Charlottesville3 3.89 3.11 36.39 42.71
Danville 2.92 3.53 42.47 44.41
Lynchburg 2.57 3.11 35.48 41.57
Norfolk 5.06 3.42 49.11 46.53
Richmond 4.95 2.98 39.36 43.60
Roanoke 4.18 2.89 39.79 41.25
Wallops Island4 8.04 3.17 50.52 40.84
Washington-Dulles Airport5 3.15 3.25 42.03 41.54

Location notes
1 – The Bluefield location is the Mercer County, W. Va., airport, near the Va.-W.Va. state line.
2- The Bristol location Tri-Cities Airport in Tenn., about 20 miles from Bristol, Va./Tenn.
3 – The Charlottesville location is the Charlottesville-Albemarle Airport.
4 – Wallops Island is in Accomack County.
5 – Washington-Dulles Airport is in Loudoun County.

Precipitation sources:  Climate pages of the following National Weather Service Forecast Offices:
Blacksburg, Va. (http://www.nws.noaa.gov/climate/index.php?wfo=rnk);
Morristown, Tenn. (http://www.weather.gov/climate/index.php?wfo=mrx;
Baltimore-Washington (http://www.nws.noaa.gov/climate/index.php?wfo=lwx); and
Wakefield, Va. (http://www.nws.noaa.gov/climate/index.php?wfo=akq).

The normal values used by the National Weather Service (NWS) in these provisional reports are based on the period from 1981 to 2010.  The National Climatic Data Center released these normal values in July 2011.  For information on the normal values, see the National Climatic Data Center Web page at http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/data-access/land-based-station-data/land-based-datasets/climate-normals.

For graphs of precipitation, visit the High Plains Regional Climate Center at https://hprcc.unl.edu/maps.php?map=ACISClimateMaps), where you can find maps of total precipitation and percent of normal precipitation for the past 7, 30, 60, or 90 days for all U.S. regions; or the NWS’ Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service at http://water.weather.gov/precip/ for a map of precipitation nationwide or by state, with capability to show county boundaries, and archives available for specific days, months, or years.  Shown below are the preliminary maps of the percent-of-normal precipitation for the southeastern United States for the previous 30 days, 60 days, and 90 days, through October 31, 2017.

Precip Perc 30Precip Perc 60Precip perc 90 02 Icon Streamflow
According to the U.S. Geological Survey WaterWatch for Virginia (online at http://waterwatch.usgs.gov/index.php?m=mv01d&r=va&w=map), monthly average stream flow values for October 2017 at 159 stream gages in Virginia and just beyond the state border were as follows, compared to the historical range for each given gage:
within the normal historial range – about 54% of gages;
below normal – about 20%;
much below normal – about 8%;
above normal – about 18%.

Shown below is the color-coded, flow-percentile map for this period, accessed online at https://waterwatch.usgs.gov/index.php?m=mv01d&r=va&w=map on 11/2/17.  The color codes/percentile classes used by USGS to compared flows to historical records for the month are shown in the chart below the map.

Streams Octstream codes 

An overall look at Virginia streamflow conditions is provided in the USGS WaterWatch summary plot of daily average streamflow conditions, compared to historical records for any given date.  Below is the summary plot for 88 Virginia sites during the 45-day period ending October 31, 2017, accessed on 11/2/17 at https://waterwatch.usgs.gov/index.php?id=pa01d&sid=w__plot&r=va.

Streams Plot

03 Icon Groundwater
Information on current groundwater levels in Virginia monitoring wells is available from the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water Information System, online at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/va/nwis/current/?type=gw; and from the USGS Climate Response Network, online at http://groundwaterwatch.usgs.gov/net/ogwnetwork.asp?ncd=crn (at that page, you can find a national map showing the status of groundwater monitoring wells compared to historical values).

 04 Icon Drought DROUGHT IN VIRGINIA

The weekly U.S. Drought Monitor map from the University of Nebraska-Lincoln (http://droughtmonitor.unl.edu/) for October 31, 2017, categorized 41.5% of Virginia as “abnormally dry” (covering the state approximately from the Piedmont east, except for the eastern peninsulas and the Eastern Shore).  The October 31 report categorized 3.8% of Virginia in “moderate drought” (covering parts of six counties along southern border, just east of Danville).

Drought Monitor categories are as follows:
D0 = abnormally dry;
D1 = moderate drought;
D2 = severe drought;
D3 = extreme drought;
D4 = exceptional drought.

The Drought Monitor notes that it “focuses on broad-scale conditions [and] local conditions may vary.”

For comparison, here are Virginia ratings from previous Drought Monitors from about one month, two months, three months, and one year ago:
9/26/17 – 18/1% abnormally dry;
8/29/17 – 19.7% abnormally dry;
7/25/17 – 32.4% abnormally dry;
11/1/16 – 28.9% abnormally dry or worse; 3.4% moderate drought.

The Virginia Drought Monitoring Task Force (DMTF), a collaboration of state and federal agencies, issued its most recent (as of 10/31/17) Drought Status Report on October 11, 2017.  A link to the report, along with other current drought-status information, is available online at http://www.deq.virginia.gov/Programs/Water/WaterSupplyWaterQuantity/Drought.aspx.  The Task Force’s reports typically include information from some or all of the following agencies: University of Virginia Climatology Office, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the Virginia departments of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Health, and Environmental Quality.  The Task Force is next scheduled to meet on November 2, 2017.  Following is an excerpt from the October 11 report:
“Much below normal rainfall and variable temperatures occurred across Virginia throughout September.  Stream flow gaging stations reported flows that were generally below the normal range (between the 25th and 75th percentiles) with many stations across central, southern, and western Virginia reporting much below-normal flows (less than the 10th percentile).  The recorded 28-day average streamflow at stations in the Shenandoah River basin were lower than the 5th percentile, indicating severe hydrologic drought.  Most of the wells in the Virginia Climate Response network of groundwater level observation wells were reporting normal levels, except for the wells in central Virginia, which continued to report below normal levels.

“The DMTF discussed the continuing dry conditions, especially within the Middle James, Roanoke River and Shenandoah drought evaluation regions, and agreed to recommend the issuance of Drought Watch advisories for these regions.  The DMTF also agreed to continue the existing Drought Watch in the Northern Piedmont region.  The group also decided that the time period for evaluation of the precipitation indicators on the Statewide drought indicator map should be changed from the entire previous water year (October 1, 2016–September 30, 2017) to a more recent period (e.g., the previous 60 or 90 days).  DEQ staff implemented this change. …

“The Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (VDACS) reported that some growers Virginia have reported dry conditions that have negatively impacted setting of cover crops.  Also, livestock producers have reported that the extended August and September dry conditions affected pastures to the extent that livestock hay use is 2-3 months ahead of normal.  The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Wilmington NC District reported that minimal rainfall has occurred upstream of the J. H. Kerr and Philpott reservoirs in the Roanoke basin.  The water levels at J. H. Kerr and Philpott dams are running 3.5 feet and 3 feet below guide curve respectively, for this time of year.  USACE Norfolk Region staff reported that water levels at Lake Moomaw (Gathright Dam) on the upper James River were just above 1568 ft (approximately 3 feet above Watch level), and dropping about 0.15 feet per day.”

The Drought Monitoring Task Force also produces a map rating drought-status indicators.  Shown below is the map for November 1, 2017.  The status-indicator abbreviations on that map are as follows: GW = groundwater levels, Prcp = precipitation deficits, Res – reservoir storage, and Flow = stream flow conditions.  For each region of Virginia, the indicators are color coded for “normal,” “watch,” “warning,” or “emergency conditions.”  Note the Watch conditions for four regions in central Virginia, the groundwater emergency conditions in one region, and the streamflow warning conditions in one region.  Any given day’s current map and more information on drought status in Virginia are available online at http://www.deq.virginia.gov/Programs/Water/WaterSupplyWaterQuantity/Drought/CurrentDroughtConditionsMap.aspx.

Drought VA Nov1

DROUGHT ELSEWHERE

The October 31, 2017, U.S. Drought Monitor categorized 28.1% of the United States (including all or parts of 44 states) as being abnormally dry or worse.  The Drought Monitor categorized 2.3% of the country (including parts of 7 states), as being in severe drought or worse (categories D2, D3, and D4).  (The highest percentage in the severe-or-worse categories reported by the Drought Monitor since it began in 2000 was 38.5% of the country for the week of August 7, 2012.)

The nationwide percentages for abnormally dry or worse (categories D0-D4) and severe or worse (categories D2-D4) in the previous three months and one year ago were as follows:
9/26/17 – 31.0% abnormally dry or worse, 4.2% severe drought or worse;
8/29/17 – 25.8% abnormally dry or worse, 4.8% severe drought or worse;
7/25/17 – 33.8% abnormally dry or worse, 4.4% severe drought or worse;
11/1/16 – 45.0% abnormally dry or worse; 12.1% severe drought or worse.

90-DAY DROUGHT OUTLOOK

For a look ahead, the National Weather Service/Climate Prediction Center’s “U.S. Seasonal Drought Outlook” is available at http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/expert_assessment/sdo_summary.php.  Shown below is the outlook map available on November 1, 2017.

Drought Outlook map October

 

Groundwater Permit Reduction Impacts in Eastern Virginia Discussed at State Water Commission Meeting on 10/24/17

At the State Water Commission meeting on October 24, 2017, Virginia Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) Director David Paylor reported that recent reductions in permitted withdrawals of groundwater in eastern Virginia should reduce the rate of water-table dropping in the region’s Potomac aquifer, estimated at about 2 to 2.5 feet per year currently.  Mr. Paylor reported that the permitted withdrawals for the region’s 14 largest groundwater users have been reduced from 146 million gallons a day (MGD) to about 69 million MGD.  Mr. Paylor also noted that the Hampton Roads Sanitation Authority’s plan to add treated wastewater to the aquifer—known as the Sustainable Water Initiative for Tomorrow, or SWIFT; online at http://swiftva.com/—could significantly replenish the groundwater source.

More information about the State Water Commission meeting is available online at http://dls.virginia.gov/commissions/swc.htm?x=mtg.

Source: DEQ: Cutting groundwater draws likely to stabilize supply, Daily Press, 10/24/17.